The bibliography about the medieval period in Somaliland, Somalia and the South-east of Africa is extremely fragmented and difficult to obtain, and there are no good synthesis for the general public.

This list doesn’t pretend to be exhaustive, just show some of the most important academic contributions on this topic, and it will be expanded through time.


  • Azaïs F. and Chambard, R. (1931): Cinq Années de recherches archéologiques en Éthiopie. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
  • Curle, A. T. (1937): “The ruined towns of Somaliland.” Antiquity 11: 315–327.
  • Chittick, H. N. (1982): “Medieval Mogadishu”. Paideuma 28: 45-62.
  • Braukämper, U. (2002): Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia. Münster: LIT Verlag.
  • Cuoq, J. (1981): L’Islam en Éthiopie des origines au XVIe siècle. Paris, Nouvelles Éditions Latines.
  • Fauvelle-Aymar, F.X. and Hirsch, B. (2008): “Établissements et formations politiques musulmans d’Éthiopie et de la corne de l’Afrique au Moyen Âge. Vers une reconstruction.” Annales Islamologiques 42: 339-372.
  • Fauvelle-Aymar, F.X., Hirsch B., Bruxelles, L., Chalachew, M., Chekroun, A., Deresse, A. (2006a): “Reconnaissances de trois villes musulmanes de l’époque médiévale dans l’Ifat”. Annales d’Éthiopie XXII, p. 133-178.
  • Fauvelle-Aymar, F.X.; Bruxelles, L.; Chekroun, A.; Mensan, R.; Hirsch B.; Onezime, O.; Asnake, W.;  Deresse, A.; Hailu, Z. & Ahmed, M. (2006b): “A topographie survey and some soundings at Nora, an ancient Muslim town of Ethiopia”. Journal of Ethiopian Studies, XXXIX (1-2), p. 1-11.
  • Fauvelle-Aymar, F.X. and Hirsch, B. (eds) (2011a): Espaces Musulmans de la Corne de l’Afrique au Moyen Age. Études d’Archéologie et d’Histoire. Paris: De Boccard/Centre Français d’Études Éthiopiennes.
  • Fauvelle-Aymar, F.X. and Hirsch, B. (2011b): “Muslim Historical Spaces in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa: A Reassessment.” Northeast African Studies 11 (1): 25-53.
  • Hungtinford, G.W.B. (1989): The historical geography of Ethiopia from the first century AD to 1704. Oxford: Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press.
  • Insoll, T. (2003): The Archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Insoll, T. (2017): “First Footsteps in the Archaeology of Harar, Ethiopia”. Journal of Islamic Archaeology 4 (2): 189–215.
  • Insoll, T., MacLean, R. and Engda, B. (2016): “Archaeological survey and test excavations, Harlaa, Dire Dawa, and Sofi, Harari Regional State, Ethiopia: A preliminary fieldwork report.” Nyame Akuma 85: 23–32.
  • Insoll, T.; Tesfaye, H. and Mahmoud, M.S. (2014): “Archaeological survey and test excavations, Harari Regional State, Ethiopia, July- August 2014: A preliminary fieldwork report.” Nyame Akuma 82: 100–109.
  • Jönsson, S. (1983): Archaeological Research Co-operation between Somalia and Sweden: report on a three-month visit to Somalia in 1982. Stockholm: The Swedish Central Board of National Antiquities.
  • Paulitschke, P.V. (1898): “Prähistorische Funde aus dem Somallande.” Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft 28: 34–36, 115–21.
  • Trimingham, J. S. (1952): Islam in Ethiopia. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Warsame, S. A., A. Nikiforov, and L. L. Galkin. (1974): “The Archaeological Sites of Northern Somalia.” In Scientifijic Notes of the Soviet-Somali Expedition, edited by V. G. Solodovnikov, 314–31. Moscow: Academy of Sciences, Institute of Africa [original in Russian].

Written by our team

Referencing this website

Statehorn. 2020. Statehorn: Archaeology in the Horn of Africa. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 31 October 2020].